|Origin of name:||Ytterby, Sweden|
|Atomic weight:||173.045 u|
|Melting point:||1097 °K|
|Boiling point:||1469 °K|
|Specific heat capacity:||0.155 J/(g*K)|
|Abundance in Earth's crust:||3.2 mg/kg|
Data from Wikipedia's "List of chemical elements" (June 2017).
|Supply risk:||Heavy REEs: 4.8 *|
|Weighted country risk:||-|
|Economic importance:||Heavy REEs: 3.7 *|
|World reserves:||110,000,000 t REE according to USGS (figure is likely to be underestimated, it does not consider recent significant exploration activity) *|
|Price development:||no data specific for Ho, Lu, Tm, Yb prices are available *|
|EOL recycling input rate:||1% *|
Hover over the * to get information about the references of the data.
Hover over the under-dashed words to get further information.
|BGR (2014a)||Zinn - Rohstoffwirtschaftliche Steckbriefe |
accessed: Ferbuary 23rd 2016
|Cullbrand & Magnusson (2012)||Cullbrand, K. & Magnusson, O. (2012). |
The Use of Potentially Critical Materials in Passenger Cars.
Master Thesis., Chalmers University of Technology: Department of Environmental Systems Analysis. Gothenburg.
|DERA (2013)||Ursachen von Preispeaks, -einbrüchen, -und trends bei minerlaischen Rohstoffen |
accessed: November 5th 2015
|DERA (2014)||Angebotskonzentration bei minealischen Rohstoffen und Zwischenprodukten - potenzielle Preis- und Länderrisiken |
accesssed: Nevember 24th 2015
|DERA (2016)||DERA Rohstoffinformation - Rohstoffe für Zukunftstechnologien 2016. |
|Elsner et al. (2010)||Commodity Top News Nr. 33 |
Elektronikmetalle - zukünftig steigender Bedarf bei unzureichender Versorgungslage?
accessed: February 22nd 2016
|European Commission (2014a)||Report on Critical Raw Materials for the EU |
accessed: November 5th 2015
|European Commission (2014b)||Critical Material Profiles |
accessed: November 5th 2015
|European Commission (2014c)||Non- Critical Material Profiles |
accessed: February 9th 2016
|European Commission (2017)||Study on the review of the list of critical raw materials |
accessed: Octobre 11th 2017
|European Commission (2017a)||COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS on the 2017 list of Critical Raw Materials for the EU |
accessed: Octobre 16th 2017
|European Commission (2017b)||Study on the review of the list of critical raw materials: Non-critical raw materials factsheets |
accessed: Octobre 20th 2017
|European Commission (2017c)||Study on the review of the list of critical raw materials: Critical raw materials factsheets |
accessed: Octobre 20th 2017
|Gunn, G. (2014)||Critical metals handbook |
John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK.
|NewInnoNet (2016)||The Near-Zero European Waste Innovation Network |
The project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 642231
|ORKAM (2017)||Optimierung der Separation von Bauteilen und Materialien aus Altfahrzeugen zur Rückgewinnung kritischer Metalle (ORKAM)
|ReStra (2017)||Recyclingpotenzial strategischer Metalle (ReStra) |
|Sander, K. et al. (2015)||Sander, K.; Kohlmeier, R.; Rödig, L.; Wagner, L.; |
Altfahrzeuge - Verwertungsquoten 2015 und Hochwertigkeit der Verwertung, Conference Proceedings Recycling 2015, VIVIS Verlag, Berlin
available online: http://www.vivis.de/kostenfreie-artikel/category/129-autos#
|UNEP (2009)||Critical Metals for Future Sustainable Technologiesw and their Receycling Potential. |
Buchert, Matthias; Schüler, Doris; Bleher, Daniel
|UNEP (2013)||Metal Recycling: Opportunities, Limits, Infrastructure, A Report of the Working Group on the Global Metal Flows to the International Resource Panel. |
Reuter, M. A.; Hudson, C.; van Schaik, A.; Heiskanen, K.; Meskers, C.; Hagelüken, C.
|USGS (2016)||Mineral commodity summaries 2016 |
accessed: February 10th 2016
|USGS (2017)||Mineral commodity summaries 2017 |
accessed: February 13th 2016
|Widmer, R. et al. (2015)||Widmer, R., Du, X., Haag, O., Restrepo, E., Wäger, P.A. (2015). |
Scarce Metals in Conventional Passenger Vehicles and End-of-Life Vehicle Shredder Output.
Environmental Science & Technology 49, 4591-4599.
|CIGS||A copper indium gallium selenide solar cell (or CIGS cell, sometimes CI(G)S or CIS cell) is a thin-film solar cell used to convert sunlight into electric power. It is manufactured by depositing a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium and selenide on glass or plastic backing, along with electrodes on the front and back to collect current. Because the material has a high absorption coefficient and strongly absorbs sunlight, a much thinner film is required than of other semiconductor materials.
CIGS is one of three mainstream thin-film PV technologies, the other two being cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon. Like these materials, CIGS layers are thin enough to be flexible, allowing them to be deposited on flexible substrates. However, as all of these technologies normally use high-temperature deposition techniques, the best performance normally comes from cells deposited on glass, even though advances in low-temperature deposition of CIGS cells have erased much of this performance difference. CIGS outperforms polysilicon at the cell level, however its module efficiency is still lower, due to a less mature upscaling.
|GLR||This is a German Unit made by DERA (Deutsche Rohstoffagentur). |
The weighted Country risk (GLR) is based on data from Mining, Mineral Processing and net Imports correlated with country indices or country rankings in relation to the World-wide Governance Indicators of the world bank (Worldbank 2014). The country indicators are based on :
The DERA has also the newest publication for the raw materials:
In addition, you find some further facts on the website of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources:
This research is according to the discussion on securing raw materials in the EU and the raw materials criticality are further discussed in detail on the EC website:
„Raw materials are crucial to Europe’s economy. They form a strong industrial base, producing a broad range of goods and applications used in everyday life and modern technologies. Reliable and unhindered access to certain raw materials is a growing concern within the EU and across the globe. To address this challenge, the European Commission has created a list of critical raw materials (CRMs) for the EU, which is subject to a regular review and update. CRMs combine raw materials of high importance to the EU economy and of high risk associated with their supply.“
|HHI||The Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score) is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. Named after economists Orris C. Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirschman, it is an economic concept widely applied in competition law, antitrust and also technology management. It is defined as the sum of the squares of the market shares of the firms within the industry (sometimes limited to the 50 largest firms), where the market shares are expressed as fractions. The result is proportional to the average market share, weighted by market share. As such, it can range from 0 to 1.0, moving from a huge number of very small firms to a single monopolistic producer. Increases in the Herfindahl index generally indicate a decrease in competition and an increase of market power, whereas decreases indicate the opposite. Alternatively, if whole percentages are used, the index ranges from 0 to 10,000 "points". For example, an index of .25 is the same as 2,500 points. |
|HSLA||High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition but rather to specific mechanical properties. They have a carbon content between 0.05–0.25% to retain formability and weldability. Other alloying elements include up to 2.0% manganese and small quantities of copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium. Copper, titanium, vanadium, and niobium are added for strengthening purposes. These elements are intended to alter the microstructure of carbon steels, which is usually a ferrite-pearlite aggregate, to produce a very fine dispersion of alloy carbides in an almost pure ferrite matrix. This eliminates the toughness-reducing effect of a pearlitic volume fraction yet maintains and increases the material's strength by refining the grain size, which in the case of ferrite increases yield strength by 50% for every halving of the mean grain diameter. |
|MRI||Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve x-rays, which distinguishes it from computed tomography (CT or CAT). |